联系我们
Isaac Scientific Publishing
Annals of Advanced Agricultural Sciences
AS > Volume 4, Number 1, February 2020

Evaluation of Flour and Starch Qualities from Three Cassava Varieties for Ethanol Production Using a Novoenzyme and a Strain of Dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast)

Download PDF  (287.9 KB)PP. 1-7,  Pub. Date:January 13, 2020
DOI: 10.22606/as.2020.41001

Author(s)
HA, Etudaiye, UJ, Ukpabi, E, Egesi, A, Ikpeama
Affiliation(s)
National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria; Center for Food Technology and Research (CEFTER),Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Abstract
Flours and starches were processed from three cassava varieties namely TMS 98/0505, TMS 419 and NR 8082. The flours and starches were fermented employing Termamyl Type L Novoenzyme (an alpha amylase), glucoamylase from A.niger and dried form of Saccharomyces yeast. The flours and starches were analysed for moisture/dry matter, fibre, amylose and amylopectin contents. Slurries obtained were analysed for glucose contents, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and temperature during 72hrs of fermentation. The ethanol yield of the flours and starches were determined. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found among the cassava flours/starches with respect to moisture/dry matter, fibre, amylose and amylopectin contents. The ethanol yield of the flours and starches tended to be dependent on their amylose contents. Correlation between amylose and ethanol yield were 96.20% (flour) and 86.39% (starch). The yields of ethanol from filtrates of slurries obtained from fermented cassava starch samples were higher than that of the flour samples. Ethanol yields from starch of TMS 98/0505, TMS 419 and NR 8082 were 20.49%, 18.98% and 18.21%, respectively. Those of flour samples were 14.01%, 14.04% and 12.56%, respectively. The glucose contents and the pH of the fermenting slurries of the flours and starches decreased as fermentation progressed, whereas their TTA and temperatures generally increased. Ethanol yields from starch of TMS 98/0505 were the highest when compared with the other varieties used. The study recommends cassava variety TMS 98/0505 in ethanol production.
Keywords
cassava, flour, starch, fermentation, ethanol yield.
References
  • [1]  N, Nadir,M, Mel,MIA, Karim and RM,Yunus.Comparison of sweet sorghum and cassava for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Applied Sci.,2009. 9: p3068-3073
  • [2]  C, Alais C andG,Linden. Food Biochemistry, Aspen Publishers Inc. Coaistherburg Maryland, 1999 p. 4
  • [3]  J, Baras, S, Gaaesa, D, Pejin.Ethanol is strategic raw material, Chem. Ind. 2002 56: 89-105
  • [4]  A, Demirbas. Progress and recent trends in biofuels, Progres in Energy and Combustion Science, doi: 10.1016/jpecs.2006. 06. 001
  • [5]  A, Rosenberger.Improving the energy balance of bio-ethanol production from winter cereals: the effect of crop production intensity. Applied Energy, 2001. 68(1): 51-67.
  • [6]  A, Hansen,Q, Zhang and P, Lyne. Ethanol-diesel fuel blends-a rewiew, Bio-Recourse Technology 200596, 277— 285
  • [7]  HA, Etudaiye, E, Oti, T, Sanchez, RM, Omodamiro, OS, Afuape and A, Ikpeama. Effect of variety and influence of granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme and yeast on the yield of ethanol generated from cassava flours and starches. Pelagia Research Library. Advances in Applied Science Research 2012 3 (5) 2774-2778.
  • [8]  AGO, Dixon, RU, Okechukwu, M, Akoroda, P, Ilona, F, Ogbe, J, Mkumbira, G, Ssemakula, L, Sanni, J, Lemchi, E, Okoro, C, Ezedinma, M, Patino, G, Tarawali, B, Maziya-Dixon, C, Goteloma. New cassava variety Flyer- TMS 98/0581, 2005IITA Integrated Cassava Project. Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • [9]  H, Ceballos, T, Sanchez, N, Morante, M, Fregene, D, Dufour, SM, Smith, K, Denyer,JC,Perez, F, Calle and C, Mestres. Discovery of an Amylose-free Starch Mutant in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). J. of Agric. And Food Chem.2007
  • [10]  L, Sanni, B, Maziya-Dixon B, Akanya J, Okoro CI,Alaya, Y, Egwuonwu CV., Okechukwu RU., Ezedinma C, Akoroda M, Lemchi L, Ogbe F, Okoro E, Tarawali G, Mkumbira J, Patino M, Ssemakula G and Dixon A Standards for cassava products and guidelines for export 2005 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • [11]  Association of Official Analytical Chemist (Official Method of Analysis 15thEd.WashingtonD.C) 1996Vol 1 and 2.
  • [12]  OB, Oluwole, OO, Olatunji, SA, Odunfa. A Process Technology for Conversion of Dried Cassava Chips into “Gari”. Nigerian Food Journal 200422: 65-77.
  • [13]  CC, Okoro. Effect of process modification on the physio-chemical and sensory quality of fufu-flour and dough. African Journal of Biotechnology 6: 20071949-1953.
  • [14]  PC,Williams, FD, Kuzina,IA, Hlynka.Cereal Chem. 1970, 47, 411-420.
  • [15]  GL, Miller. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar, Anal. Chem.,195931, 426, 1959.
  • [16]  Statistical Analytical System (SAS): copyright (C) 2009 SAS Institute Inc.; Cary NC, USA
  • [17]  E, Nuwamanya, Y, Baguma,, N, Emmambux, J, Taylor and P, Rubaihayo. Physicochemical and functional characteristics ofcassava starch in Ugandan varieties and their progenies.Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 2010 Vol. 2(1).1-11
  • [18]  E, Nuwamanya, Y, Baguma, N, Emmambux, J, Taylor and P, Rubaihayo.Crystalline and pasting properties of cassava starch are influenced by its molecular properties African Journal of Food Science 2010Vol 4(1) 8-15
  • [19]  I, Defloor, I, Dehing, JA, Delcour. Physico-chemical properties of cassava starch. Starch/Stärke1998, 50, 58-64
  • [20]  A, Fernandez, J, Wenham, D, Dufour, CC,Wheatley.The influence of variety and processing on the physicochemical and functional properties of cassava starch and flour. In Cassava Flour and Starch: Progress in Research and Development;Dufour, D., O’Brien, G. M., Best R., Eds.; CIRAD/CIAT Montpellier France/ Cali Colombia: 1996pp 263-269.
  • [21]  FO, Ajibola, MO, Edema and OB, Oyewole.Enzymatic production of ethanol from cassava of starch using two strains of Saccharomyces cereviciae. In Nig. Food Jr. 2012 Vol 30, Isuue 2 114-121
  • [22]  S, Moorthy. Physicochemical and functional properties of tropical tuber starches: A review. Starch 54: 2002 559-562
  • [23]  YC, Shi, T, Capitani, P, Trzasko and R, Jeffcoat. Molecular structure of low- amylopectin starch and other high- amylose maize starches. J. Cereal Sci 1998 27: 289-299
Copyright © 2020 Isaac Scientific Publishing Co. All rights reserved.